CTET Notes on Social Science Free PDF || Rulers and Buildings

In CTET Exam, the Social Studies section comprises a total of 60 questions of 60 marks, in which 40 questions come from the content section i.e.History, Geography, and Political Science, and the rest 20 questions from the Social Studies Pedagogy section. Here, we are providing important Complete study notes on Social Studies which will be very helpful for upcoming CTET and other teaching exams.

CTET Notes on History- Rulers and Buildings

Introduction

=Qutubuddin Aybak started the construction of the Qutub Minar in 1199.

=The Qutb Minar is five stories high. The first floor was constructed by Qutbuddin Aybak and the rest by Iltutmish around 1229

=Balconies were built on the outside and under the arches and geometric designs were carved.

=Under each balcony were two bands of inscriptions in Arabic

=Two kinds of structures were built during  ancient and medieval times:

1.structures such as fortspalacesgarden residences, and tombs that were were safewell protected, and  grand;

2.templesmosquestankswellscaravansaries, and bazaarsstructures that were built for public activity

=Agra Fort Built by Akbar, the Agra Fort required 2,000 stone-cutters, 2,000 cement, and lime-makers and 8,000 laborers.

Engineering Skills And Construction

=Although architects built more windowsrooms, and doors, the basic method of building them, where a horizontal beam was placed across two vertical columns remained the same.

=These trebeate structures were used to build many temples, mosques, and stepped wells between the eighth and the thirteenth centuries.

=in arcuate (curved) structures where the weight of the superstructure was carried by arches. high-quality limestone cement when mixed with stone chips formed hard concrete and was used highly during this age.

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